Law Suits and Sales



Law Suits and Sales are like oil and water. Avoid litigious business partners, customers, and competitors at all costs. A large legal suit against you or your firm can take over your whole professional and personal life. Many small firms are put out of business not only by the direct costs of pursuing their case in court but also by the indirect costs of being distracted away from selling. In 90% of all cases most sales professionals should cut bait and re-work another sales route when a legal threat in pending. Your reputation, time, and the opportunity costs of writing jargon-filled letters between lawyers vs. landing another large client can bring your business to a halt. The following is a list of legal considerations that should be taken during a sales career. Most of these are more reminders than novel ideas and please email me with any additional tips you might have.

  1. Always keep a copy of every contract you sign at home and in your office.
  2. If you are forced to sign a non-compete clause carve out the relationships and contacts that you bring in from your friends, past experience, and personal networking off the clock.
  3. Always treat an employer or boss as you would want to be treated if you were in their position.
  4. Always take the high road. Don't trash your competition or past employers behind their backs or to their face.
  5. If you are unsure about which laws or regulations to follow in a gray area follow the highest level of ethical standards and compliance rules.
  6. Never send an email or have an instant messaging conversation that you wouldn't have right in front of your boss or coworkers. Many large corporations scan the emails of all employee for certain keywords and many small employers check on their employees because they can't afford to have someone substituting selling of company products for selling themselves on match.com
  7. Full disclosure of all past, current or potential future relationships that could effect your employer's or customer's long-term interest in working with you.
  8. Always have a lawyer review your employment contract before signing it.
  9. Avoid litigation at all costs. Always opt to cut bait and fish somewhere else. The biggest fish in the sea gets that way by not being caught. If you start cutting ethical corners or filing law suits instead of cashing checks you have been caught and you just might get fried.
- Richard

Tags: Hedge Fund, Hedge Funds, Hedge Fund Lawsuits

Marketing and Sales Best Practices

I keep a word document called "Effective Notes" on my computer. Each time I am stopped in my tracks by something really valuable whether it be a list in a book, a speech, a blog posting, an article, or advice from my a mentor I add it to my 1 page of effectiveness notes. I usually update this list of best practices once a month and I always have at least 4 copies of it printed and laminated. One copy is taped to the wall in my shower, one at my desk at work, one on my kitchen cupboard at home, and one by my couch. I can't help but run into it every day and it ensures that I will never forget the important personal growth and business lessons that I have learned. It is a simple idea, but it works.


- Richard

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Psychology of Influence for Money Managers Marketing and Sales

Psychology of Influence for Money Managers - Marketing and Sales


Psychology of Influence for Money Managers sales1. First impressions are made within4 seconds and can last a lifetime. Only create 1st class presentation materials, websites, and brands. Only hire 1st class individuals, they are who your clients will use to judge your fund.

2. Stand for something unique. Stand out and differentiate in a way that resonates with the investment community without being trendy. Be the first or the best.

3. Network and sell through referrals. Your introduction to an opportunity changes how you are perceived and treated. Too many hedge fund sales people cold call the world instead of networking with targeted groups of individuals who can be both informative and valuable connectors.

4. Let investors taste your performance. If they take your products on a test drive they will likely invest more money in you down the road. Once they are on board for a testing of your investment product they are likely to construct additional reasons for investing with your team while explaining the opportunity to other analysts or advisors.

5. Don't sell your fund, make friends. People do business with those who are their friends. Price doesn't matter if you drank a beer over a Red Sox game together. Most people attribute positive attributes to all aspects of a person's abilities if they first approve of that person's character and personality.

More to come...

- Richard

Articles Related to Psychology of Sales Call Reluctance
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Tags: Money Manager Sales, Money Manager Marketing, Marketing Money Managers, Financial Services Marketing and sales

Hedge Fund Analyst

Hedge Fund Analyst

Hedge Fund Analyst Positions


hedge fund analystAre you looking for a job as a hedge fund analyst or looking to hire a hedge fund analyst?

Please see the Analyst & Due Diligence Positions listed within the Hedge Fund Job Listings section of this website.


- Richard

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S & P IFC Emerging Markets Indexes | Index Holdings

S & P IFC Emerging Markets Indexes

S & P IFC Emerging Markets Indexes | Index

Standard and Poor's, using data acquired from International Finance Corporation, produces a number of capitalization weighted indexes to measure the emerging securities market, including:

S&P/IFCG Indexes

The Global (G) Index series is intended to represent the performance of the most active stocks in their respective markets and to be the broadest possible indicator of market movements. The current aggregate market capitalization of S&P/IFCG index constituents exceeds 75% of the total capitalization of all domestic listed shares on the local stock exchange. Industry or regional representation is not considered as a basis for building the S&P/IFCG Index Series. For index calculation purposes, Standard & Poor's uses a holding coefficient designed to adjust market capitalization by removing all cross holdings between constituent companies, all government holdings and significant strategic holdings that exceed 20%. The S&P/IFCG Composite Index currently includes 33 markets.

S&P/IFCI Indexes

The Investable (I) Index series is designed to measure the type of returns foreign portfolio investors might receive from investing in emerging market stocks that are legally and practically available to them. Constituents for the S&P/IFCI series are drawn from the S&P/IFCG stock universe based on size, liquidity, and their legal and practical availability to foreign institutional investors. Some markets included in the S&P/IFCG Composite Index are not included in the S&P/IFCI Composite Index due to limits on foreign investment or a lack of stocks that meet the more stringent S&P/IFCI size and liquidity screens. The S&P/IFCI Composite Index currently includes 22 markets.

For over 1,000 additional terms and definitions please see our Investment Glossary Guide.

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S and P 500 Index Funds | Stock Index | Definition

S and P 500 Index Funds

S and P 500 Index Funds | Stock Index

Standard and Poor's 500 Index covers 500 industrial, utility, transportation, and financial companies of the US markets (mostly NYSE issues). The index represents about 75% of NYSE market capitalization and 30% of NYSE issues. It is a capitalization-weighted index as calculated by Russell on a total return basis with dividends reinvested. Commonly referred to as the S&P 500.

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Russell Style Index Methodology

Russell Style Index Methodology

Russell Style Index Methodology


Russell uses a proprietary, "non-linear probability" method to assign stocks to the growth and value style indexes. The term "probability" is used to indicate the degree of certainty that a stock is value- or growth-based on its relative price-to-book ratio and the Institutional Brokers Estimate System (I/B/E/S) forecast long-term growth mean. This method allows stocks to be represented as having both growth and value characteristics, while preserving the additive nature of the indexes.

The process for assigning growth and value weights is applied separately to the Russell 1000 and Russell 2000 indexes. Research indicates that valuations of small stocks on average differ from those of large stocks. Treating the Russell 1000 and Russell 2000 separately prevents distortion to relative valuations that may occur if the Russell 3000 was used as the base index.

For each base index (the Russell 1000 and Russell 2000), stocks are ranked by their adjusted book-to-price ratio (B/P) and their I/B/E/S forecast long-term growth mean (IBESLT). These rankings are converted to standardized units and combined to produce a composite value score (CVS). Stocks are then ranked by their CVS, and a probability algorithm is applied to the CVS distribution to assign growth and value weights to each stock. In general, stocks with lower CVS are considered growth, stocks with higher CVS are considered value, and stocks with a CVS in the middle are considered to have both growth and value characteristics and are weighted proportionately in the growth and value index. Stocks are always fully represented by the combination of their growth and value weights. For example, a stock that is given a 20% weight in the value index will have an 80% weight in the growth index.

Growth/Value Algorithm Example

Stock A, in Figure 1 below, is a security with 20% of its available shares assigned to the value index and the remaining 80% assigned to the growth index. The growth and value probabilities will always sum to 100%. Hence, the sum of a stock's market capitalization in the growth and value index will always equal its market capitalization in the Russell 1000 Index or Russell 2000 Index.

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Dynamic Asset Allocation | Definition | What is Dynamic Asset Allocation?

Dynamic Asset Allocation

Dynamic Asset Allocation | Definition

An asset allocation strategy in which the asset mix is changed in response to changing market conditions.

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Producer Price Index | Producers Price Index Commodities

Producer Price Index

Producer Price Index Commodities

Producer Price Index. A family of indexes, prepared by the US Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), that measures the average change over time in the selling prices received by domestic producers of goods and services. PPI measures price change from the perspective of the seller in contrast to other measures, such as the Consumer Price Index (CPI), that measure price change from the purchaser's perspective. Sellers' and purchasers' prices may differ due to government subsidies, sales and excise taxes, and distribution costs.

BLS releases over 10,000 PPIs for individual products and groups of products each month. Producer Price Indexes are available for the products of virtually every industry in the mining and manufacturing sectors of the US economy. New PPIs are gradually being introduced for the products of industries in the transportation, utilities, trade, finance, and services sectors of the US economy.

Producer Price Index data are widely used by business and government for three major purposes:

(a) Economic indicators — PPIs capture price movements prior to the retail level. Therefore, they may foreshadow subsequent price changes for businesses and consumers. The President, Congress, and the Federal Reserve employ these data in formulating fiscal and monetary policies.

(b) Deflator of other economic series — PPIs are used to adjust other economic time series for price changes and to translate those series into inflation-free dollars. For example, constant-dollar gross domestic product data are estimated using deflators based on PPI data.

(c) Basis for contract escalation — PPI data are commonly used in escalating purchase and sales contracts. These contracts typically specify dollar amounts to be paid at some point in the future. It is often desirable to include an escalation clause that accounts for increases in input prices. For example, a long-term contract for bread may be escalated for changes in wheat prices by applying the percent change in the PPI for wheat to the contracted price for bread.

Note: In 1978 BLS changed the name of this price measure from Wholesale Price Index (WPI) to the current term. However, no change was made to the basic index methodology, and the continuity of the price index data was unaffected.

For more information, see: BLS Web Site

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NYSE Composite Index | Holdings Performance

NYSE Composite Index

NYSE Composite Index Holdings

Covers every common stock listed on the New York Stock Exchange. It is a value-weighted index calculated on a total return basis with dividends reinvested.

For over 1,000 additional terms and definitions please see our Investment Glossary Guide.

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NRI Bond Performance Index | Holdings Composite

NRI Bond Performance Index

NRI Bond Performance Index Holdings

Composed of Japanese publicly placed interest-bearing bonds which have both term to maturity of one year or more and par amount outstanding of one billion yen or more. The Nomura Research Institute (NRI) calculates performance monthly. Sub indexes are available by type of bonds: government bonds, municipal bonds, government-guaranteed bonds, bank debentures, corporate bonds and yen-denominated foreign bonds; and by maturity (term to maturity): long (7 years or more), medium (3 to 6.99 years), and short (1 to 2.99 years).

Currency: Japanese yen


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Nikkei All Stock Index | Holdings Composite | Performance

Nikkei All Stock Index

Nikkei All Stock Index Holdings

A market value-weighted index calculated using all stocks listed on Japan's five equities exchanges (Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya, Sapporo, Fukuoka), Hercules, and Mother’s. The Jasdaq over-the-counter exchange is not included. For index calculation purposes, dividends paid by a corporation are added to its market capitalization.

Currency: Japanese yen

For over 1,000 additional terms and definitions please see our Investment Glossary Guide.

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Dollar Cost Averaging | Value Averaging | Definition | What is Dollar Cost Averaging?

Dollar Cost Averaging

Dollar Cost Averaging Strategy | Definition


A policy by which the same dollar amount is placed in one or more common stocks at fixed successive intervals, thereby enabling the investor to average the purchase of his shares over a good many years. Assuming that each investment is of the same number of dollars, a greater number of shares are purchased when the price is low and fewer when it is high. Thus, a satisfactory average price is obtained which precludes the investor from buying all the shares at the high levels of the market.

Caution: Dollar cost averaging does not assure a profit or prevent a loss in declining markets. The investor should consider his/her ability to continue investing during low price levels.


For over 1,000 additional terms and definitions please see our Investment Glossary Guide.

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NCREIF Classic Property Index | Holdings Composite

NCREIF Classic Property Index

NCREIF Classic Property Index Holdings

Maintained by the National Council of Real Estate Investment Fiduciaries (NCREIF), this benchmark measures historical performance of income-producing properties. All investments are acquired on behalf of tax-exempt institutions and are held in a fiduciary environment. Acquisitions must be on an all-cash, non-leveraged basis. Wholly owned investments and joint venture investments (which must be reported as though wholly owned) are also included. The index includes existing properties only and is restricted to investment-grade, nonagricultural, income-producing properties; development projects are not included until completion. The index database increases quarterly as participants acquire properties. In addition, the index - although appraisal-based - has a significant number of transactions included in the performance because of the properties that have been sold.

Returns for the index are calculated quarterly by aggregating individual property returns on a market value-weighted basis. Income and capital returns are calculated separately and may not be additive. Additional returns are available for the following sub-indexes:
Property Type:

(a) Residential apartment complexes
(b) Office buildings
(c) Retail properties (regional, community, neighborhood, other)
(d) Research and development/office facilities
(e) Warehouses
Regions:

(a) East
(b) Midwest
(c) South
(d) West
Property Types by Region:

(a) Apartments: East, Midwest, South, West
(b) Office buildings: East, Midwest, South, West
(c) Retail: East, Midwest, South, West
(d) R&D/Office: East, Midwest, South, West
(e) Warehouses: East, Midwest, South, West

For over 1,000 additional terms and definitions please see our Investment Glossary Guide.

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NASDAQ Composite Index Holdings | Performance

NASDAQ Composite Index

NASDAQ Composite Index Holdings

Often referred to simply as "the NASDAQ," this composite index covers approximately 4,500 stocks traded over the counter. It represents many small company stocks but is heavily influenced by about 100 of the largest stocks listed on the NASDAQ. It is a value-weighted index calculated on price change only and does not include income.

The NASDAQ Industrial Index, consisting of more than 3,000 industrial issues, is a subset of the NASDAQ Composite Index.

For over 1,000 additional terms and definitions please see our Investment Glossary Guide.

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Diversification Strategy | Definition | What is a diversification strategy?

Diversification Strategy

Diversification Strategy | Definition

The spreading of risk by placing investments in several different categories such as stocks, bonds, and money market funds.

For over 1,000 additional terms and definitions please see our Investment Glossary Guide.

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NAREIT Share Price Equity Index | Stock Market Holdings Composite

NAREIT Share Price Equity Index

NAREIT Share Price Equity Index Composite

All of the data is based upon the last closing price of the month for all tax-qualified REITs listed on the New York Stock Exchange, American Stock Exchange, and the NASDAQ National Market System. The data is market weighted. The total return calculation is based upon the weighting at the beginning of the period depending upon whether it is one month, three months, or 12 months. Only those REITs listed for the entire period are used in the total return calculation. Dividends are included in the month based upon their payment date. There is no smoothing of income. Liquidating dividends, whether full or partial, are treated as income. This has the effect of negatively biasing the price appreciation component of the index but results in accurate realized income and total return numbers. The annualized dividend yield numbers are market weighted with the most recent dividend annualized plus any extraordinary dividends included, divided by the most recent price.

For over 1,000 additional terms and definitions please see our Investment Glossary Guide.

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MSCI World Index | Stock Market Index Holdings | Composite

MSCI World Index

MSCI World Stock Market Index

Morgan Stanley Capital International's market capitalization weighted index composed of companies representative of the market structure of 22 developed market countries in North America, Europe, and the Asia/Pacific Region. The index is calculated without dividends, with net or with gross dividends reinvested, in both US dollars and local currencies. Countries include:

Australia

Hong Kong

Singapore

Austria

Ireland

South Africa

Belgium

Italy

Spain

Canada

Japan

Sweden

Denmark

Malaysia

Switzerland

Finland

Netherlands

United Kingdom

France

New Zealand

United States

Germany

Norway


Currency: US dollars and local currencies


For over 1,000 additional terms and definitions please see our Investment Glossary Guide.

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Defensive Strategy | Defensive Investment Strategy | Definition } What is a Defensive Strategy?

Defensive Strategy

Defensive Investment Strategy | Definition

A portfolio consisting mainly of short maturity bonds, preferred stocks, or other securities that are unlikely to fluctuate much in either direction.

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MSCI Pacific Index Holdings | Composite | Stock Market Index

MSCI Pacific Index

MSCI Pacific Index Holdings

Morgan Stanley Capital International's regional/composite index of the MSCI World Index. Countries include:

Australia

Japan

New Zealand

Hong Kong

Malaysia

Singapore


For over 1,000 additional terms and definitions please see our Investment Glossary Guide.

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MSCI Europe Index | Holdings Composite Performance

MSCI Europe Index

MSCI Europe Index | Holdings Composite

Morgan Stanley Capital International's regional/composite index of the MSCI World Index. Countries include:

Austria

Germany

Spain

Belgium

Ireland

Sweden

Denmark

Italy

Switzerland

Finland

Netherlands

United Kingdom

France

Norway


For over 1,000 additional terms and definitions please see our Investment Glossary Guide.

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Combination Strategy | Combo Strategy | Definition | What is a Combination Strategy?

Combination Strategy

Combination Strategy Definition

A strategy in which a put and a call on the same underlying stock with the same strike price and expiration are either both bought or both sold.

For over 1,000 additional terms and definitions please see our Investment Glossary Guide.

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MSCI Emerging Markets Index Composite Holdings | Performance

MSCI Emerging Markets Index

MSCI Emerging Markets Index Composite Holdings

Morgan Stanley Capital International's market capitalization weighted index composed of companies representative of the market structure of 26 emerging market countries in Europe, Latin America, and the Pacific Basin. Countries include:

Argentina

Indonesia

Poland

Brazil

Israel

Portugal

Chile

Jordan

South Africa

China

Korea

Sri Lanka

Colombia

Malaysia

Taiwan

Czech Republic

Mexico

Thailand

Greece

Pakistan

Turkey

Hungary

Peru

Venezuela

India

Philippines

Currency: US dollars

For over 1,000 additional terms and definitions please see our Investment Glossary Guide.

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MSCI Emerging Markets Free Latin America Index | Holdings Performance

MSCI Latin America Index

MSCI Emerging Markets Free Latin America Index

Morgan Stanley Capital International's market capitalization weighted index composed of companies representative of the market structure of 7 emerging market countries in Latin America. The MSCI EMF Latin America Index excludes closed markets and those shares in otherwise free markets that are not purchasable by foreigners. Countries include:

Argentina

Colombia

Venezuela

Brazil

Mexico


Chile

Peru


Currency: US dollars

For over 1,000 additional terms and definitions please see our Investment Glossary Guide.

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Buy and Hold Strategy | Definition | What is a Buy and Hold Strategy?

Buy and Hold Strategy

Buy and Hold Strategy | Definition

A passive investment strategy with no active buying or selling of stocks from the time the portfolio is created until the end of the investment horizon.

For over 1,000 additional terms and definitions please see our Investment Glossary Guide.

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MSCI Emerging Markets Free Index | Composite Fund

MSCI Emerging Markets Free Index

MSCI Emerging Markets Free Index Composite

Morgan Stanley Capital International's market capitalization weighted index composed of companies representative of the market structure of 26 emerging market countries in Europe, Latin America, and the Pacific Basin. The MSCI EMF Index excludes closed markets and those shares in otherwise free markets that are not purchasable by foreigners. Countries include:

Argentina

Indonesia

Poland

Brazil

Israel

Portugal

Chile

Jordan

South Africa

China

Korea

Sri Lanka

Colombia

Malaysia

Taiwan

Czech Republic

Mexico

Thailand

Greece

Pakistan

Turkey

Hungary

Peru

Venezuela

India

Philippines


Currency: US dollars

For over 1,000 additional terms and definitions please see our Investment Glossary Guide.

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MSCI EAFE Index Fund | Composite

MSCI EAFE Index Fund

MSCI EAFE Index Fund Composite

Morgan Stanley Capital International's market capitalization weighted index composed of companies representative of the market structure of 20 developed market countries in Europe, Australasia and the Far East. The index is calculated without dividends, with net or with gross dividends reinvested, in both US dollars and local currencies. Countries include:

Australia

Hong Kong

Norway

Austria

Ireland

Singapore

Belgium

Italy

Spain

Denmark

Japan

Sweden

Finland

Malaysia

Switzerland

France

Netherlands

United Kingdom

Germany

New Zealand

Currency: US dollars and local currencies


For over 1,000 additional terms and definitions please see our Investment Glossary Guide.

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MSCI EAFE + EMF Index

MSCI EAFE + EMF Index

MSCI EAFE + EMF Index Composite

Morgan Stanley Capital International's market capitalization weighted index composed of companies representative of the market structure of 45 developed and emerging market countries. The index is calculated without dividends or with gross dividends reinvested, in both US dollars and local currencies. Countries include:

Argentina

Hungary

Peru

Australia

India

Philippines

Austria

Indonesia

Poland

Belgium

Ireland

Portugal

Brazil

Israel

Singapore

Chile

Italy

South Africa

China

Japan

Spain

Colombia

Jordan

Sri Lanka

Czech Republic

Korea

Sweden

Denmark

Malaysia

Switzerland

Finland

Mexico

Taiwan

France

Netherlands

Thailand

Germany

New Zealand

Turkey

Greece

Norway

United Kingdom

Hong Kong

Pakistan

Venezuela

Currency: US dollars and local currencies


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Bottom Up Stock selection | Definition | What is Bottom Up Stock selection?

Bottom Up Stock selection

Bottom Up Stock selection | Definition

The process of structuring an equity portfolio based upon the relative attractiveness of individual companies and the analysis of their stocks. This method differs from the "top down" approach, which focuses on the analysis of economic, sector, and market cycle data to guide stock selection.

For over 1,000 additional terms and definitions please see our Investment Glossary Guide.

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MSCI All Country World Index Composite Holdings | Performance

MSCI All Country World Index

MSCI All Country World Index Composite

Morgan Stanley Capital International's market capitalization weighted index composed of companies representative of the market structure of 47 Developed and Emerging Market countries in the Americas, Europe/Middle East, and Asia/Pacific Regions. The index is calculated without dividends or with gross dividends reinvested, in both US Dollars and Local. Countries include:

Argentina

Hungary

Philippines

Australia

India

Poland

Austria

Indonesia

Portugal

Belgium

Ireland

Singapore

Brazil

Israel

South Africa

Canada

Italy

Spain

Chile

Japan

Sri Lanka

China (Free)

Jordan

Sweden

Colombia

Korea

Switzerland

Czech Republic

Malaysia

Taiwan

Denmark

Mexico

Thailand

Finland

Netherlands

Turkey

France

New Zealand

United Kingdom

Germany

Norway

United States

Greece

Pakistan

Venezuela

Hong Kong

Peru


For over 1,000 additional terms and definitions please see our Investment Glossary Guide.

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Bond Indexing | Definition | What is Bond Indexing?

Bond Indexing

Bond Indexing Definition

Designing a portfolio so that its performance will match the performance of a selected bond index.

For over 1,000 additional terms and definitions please see our Investment Glossary Guide.

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